Doctor's Desk

The Glossary

AATB Standards

AATB Standards

The American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB); a transplant trade organization that is dedicated to ensuring that human tissues intended for transplantation are safe and free of infectious disease, of uniform high quality, and available in quantities sufficient to meet national needs. The AATB provides accreditation for over 100 tissue banks

ACOG Requirements

ACOG Requirements

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a professional association of physicians specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States. Several Latin American countries are also represented within Districts of the organization. It is a 501(c)(3) organization with a membership of approximately 58,000 obstetrician-gynecologists and women's health care professionals.

Allogeneic

Allogeneic

Cells or tissue obtained

from a donor.

Allograft

Allograft

A tissue graft from a donor of the same species as the recipient but not genetically identical.

Amniotic Fluid

Amniotic Fluid

The amniotic fluid is the protective liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a gravid amniote. This fluid serves as a cushion for the growing fetus, but also serves to facilitate the exchange of nutrients, water, and biochemical products between mother and fetus.

Amniotic Membrane

Amniotic Membrane

Amniotic membrane, or amnion, is the innermost layer of the placenta and consists of a thick basement membrane and an avascular stromal matrix. Amniotic membrane transplantation has been used as a graft or as a dressing in different surgical subspecialties.

Analyte

Analyte

An analyte, component (in clinical chemistry), or chemical species is a substance or chemical constituent that is of interest in an analytical procedure. The purest substances are referred to as analytes.

Antibodies

Antibodies

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the fragment antigen-binding (Fab) variable region.

Antigens

Antigens

In immunology, an antigen (Ag) is a molecule or molecular structure, such as may be present at the outside of a pathogen, that can be bound by an antigen-specific antibody or B cell antigen receptor. The presence of antigens in the body normally triggers an immune response. The Ag abbreviation stands for an antibody generator. Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies.

Autologous

Autologous

Cells or tissues obtained from the same individual.

Characterization Report

Characterization Report

Characterization data reporting is a summary of data and graphical presentation of the statistical analysis of the data.

Conjugate Antibodies

Conjugate Antibodies

A conjugated antibody (also known as a tagged or labeled antibody) is a monoclonal or polyclonal antibody that is coupled to a probe allowing for direct detection of a target antigen.

Convalescent Plasma

Convalescent Plasm

means plasma that comes from people who have recovered from an infection, like the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. This plasma may contain antibodies against the virus. Antibodies are proteins that your immune system makes after you have had an infection, that can neutralize or kill the virus and help you to recover

Cryopreservation

Cryopreservation

Cryo-preservation or cryo-conservation is a process where organelles, cells, tissues, extra-cellular matrix, organs, or any other biological constructs susceptible to damage caused by unregulated chemical kinetics are preserved by cooling to very low temperatures[1] (typically −80 °C using solid carbon dioxide or −196 °C using liquid nitrogen.

Cytokines

Cytokines

Cytokines are low-molecular-weight glycoproteins that are secreted by different cells in the body, mainly cells of the immune system. They have a wide array of functions in the innate and adaptive immune system, where they regulate the activation and inhibition of the immune response.

DMSO

DMSO

Dimethyl Sulfoxide is used as cryoprotectant to help preserve organs, tissue and cell suspensions that are undergoing cryo preservation.

Endotoxin Testing
Endotoxin Testing

Endotoxin Testing is performed to ensure that injectable preparations and medical devices are free from pyrogens and safe for human use. Pyrogens constitute a heterogeneous group of fever causing substances which

comprise both mircobial and

non-microbial substances.

Exosomes
Exosomes
are a nano-sized vesicle secreted from cells that contains any of various biomolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids. Intercellular communication by exosomes plays a critical role in the regulation of physiological processes.
Extracellular Matrix

Extracellular Matrix

In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional network of extracellular macromolecules, such as collagen, enzymes, and glycoproteins, that provide structural and biochemical support of surrounding cells.

Extracellular Vesicles

Extracellular Vesicles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-delimited particles that are naturally released from a cell and, unlike a cell, cannot replicate.

GMP Guidelines

GMP Guidelines

Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are the practices required in order to conform to the guidelines recommended by agencies that control the authorization and licensing of the manufacture and sale of food and beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, dietary supplements, and medical devices.

Growth Factors

Growth Factors

are a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cell proliferation, wound healing, and occasionally cellular differentiation.[1] Usually it is a secreted protein or a steroid hormone. Growth factors

are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes. Growth factors typically act as signaling molecules between cells. Examples are cytokines and hormones that bind to specific receptors on the surface

of their target cells.

They often promote cell differentiation and maturation, which varies between growth factors. For example, epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances osteogenic differentiation,[2] while fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors stimulate blood vessel differentiation (angiogenesis).

Homologous Use

Homologous Use

The repair, reconstruction, replacement or supplementation of a recipients cells or tissues with a human cell and tissue product (HCT/P) that performs the same basic function or functions in the recipient as in the donor.

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic Acid

Also called Hyaluronan, is an anionic, nonsulfated 

glycosaminoglycan 

distributed widely throughout connective, 

epithelial, and neural tissues.

Inflammation

Inflammation

Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants,[1] and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair.

Medicinal Signaling Cells

Medicinal Signaling Cells

Medicinal signaling cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells derived from mammalian bone marrow and periosteum that can be extended in culture. They can keep their ability in vitro to form a variety of mesodermal phenotypes

Medicinal Signaling Cells

Medicinal signaling cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells derived from mammalian bone marrow and periosteum that can be extended in culture. They can keep their ability in vitro to form a variety of mesodermal phenotypes

Micropods

Micropods

Minimal Manipulation

Minimal Manipulation

For structural tissue, processing that does not alter the original relevant characteristics of the tissue relating to the tissue's utility for reconstruction, repair, or replacement. For cells or nonstructural tissues, processing that does not alter the relevant biological characteristics of cells or tissues.

Mitochondrial Viability

Mitochondrial Viability

 The mitochondrial membrane potential is a key indicator of mitochondria activity levels. A number of fluorescent dyes are available that accumulate in mitochondria due to the membrane potential.

MSC's

MSC's

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) also known as mesenchymal stromal cells or medicinal signaling cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).

Multipotent

Multipotent

Multipotent cells can develop into more than one cell type but are more limited than pluripotent cells.

Nano Particle

Nano Particle

A nanoparticle or ultrafine particle is usually defined as a particle of matter that is between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in diameter.

NanoSight Report

NanoSite Report

The Malvern Panalytical NanoSight range of instruments utilizes Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) to characterize nanoparticles from 10nm - 1000nm* in solution. Each particle is individually but simultaneously analyzed by direct observation and measurement of diffusion events. This particle-by-particle methodology produces high resolution results for nanoparticle size distribution and concentration, while visual validation provides users with additional confidence in their data. Both particle size and concentration are measured, while a fluorescence mode provides differentiation of intrinsic or fluorescently labelled nanoparticles.

Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAAT)

Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAAT)

Nucleic-acid amplification tests, also known as NATs or NAATs, are used to identify small amounts of DNA or RNA in test samples. They can, therefore, be used to identify bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens even when the material of interest is present in very small amounts.

Nucleic Acids

Nucleic Acids

is a  naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid, sugars, and a mixture of organic bases (purines and pyrimidines). Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell, and, by directing the process of protein synthesis, they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing.

Placenta

Placenta

The placenta is a temporary fetal organ that begins developing from the blastocyst shortly after implantation. It plays critical roles in facilitating nutrient, gas and waste exchange between the physically separate maternal and fetal circulations, and is an important endocrine organ producing hormones that regulate both maternal and fetal physiology during pregnancy. The placenta connects to the baby via the umbilical cord,

Pluripotent

Pluripotent

Pluripotent cells can give rise to all of the cell types that make up the body; embryonic stem cells are considered pluripotent.

Regenerative Medicine

Regenerative Medicine

Regenerative medicine is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the "process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human or animal cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function". This field holds the promise of engineering damaged tissues and organs by stimulating the body's own repair mechanisms to functionally heal previously irreparable tissues or organs.

Senescent Cells

Senescent Cells

Senescence or biological aging is the gradual deterioration of functional characteristics. The word senescence can refer either to cellular senescence or to senescence of the whole organism. Organismal senescence involves an increase in death rates and/or a decrease in fecundity with increasing age, at least in the latter part of an organism's life cycle.

Senolytics

Senolytics

A senolytic (from the words senescence and -lytic, "destroying") is among a class of small molecules under basic research to determine if they can selectively induce death of senescent cells and improve health in humans.[1] A goal of this research is to discover or develop agents to delay, prevent, alleviate, or reverse age-related diseases.[2][3] A related concept is "senostatic", which means to suppress senescence.

Serology

Serology

Serology is the scientific study of serum and other body fluids. In practice, the term usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum

Sputum

Sputum

Sputum is mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways (the trachea and bronchi). In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections and cytological investigations of respiratory systems.

Wharton's Jelly

Wharton's Jelly

A gelatinous substance that provides insulation and protection within the umbilical cord.

Third Party Testing

Third Party Testing

Third party product testing is a quality control (QC) process that allows for an independent company (a third party) to test for any and all product quality and safety issues that may pose a risk of harm to the public. Third party testing also seeks to verify that the product complies with the mandates of all relevant regulatory agencies.

Totipotent

Totipotent

Totipotent cells can form all the cell types in a body, plus the extraembryonic, or placental, cells. Embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions after fertilization are the only cells that are totipotent.

Zombie Cells

Zombie Cells

Zombie cells are actually called senescent cells. They start out normal but then encounter a stress, like damage to their DNA or viral infection. At that point, a cell can choose to die or become a zombie, basically entering a state of suspended animation.